2. Antibodies directed to protein S prevent infection
The vaccine will protect, in part, by inducing the production of antibodies against the protein S present on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
The virus needs protein S to adhere, enter human cells and thus reproduce. Research shows us that antibodies, such as those created by the human immune system, bind to protein S, neutralize it, and prevent the coronavirus from continuing to infect cells in a laboratory culture.
Vaccines in clinical trials are known to increase anti-S antibodies that block virus infection in cells in the laboratory.
At least seven companies have already developed monoclonal antibodies, laboratory antibodies that can recognize protein S. These antibodies are being used in clinical trials to assess their power to prevent infection in exposed people, for example through contact. at home.
Monoclonal antibodies are also effective for treatment. During infection, a dose of these monoclonal antibodies could neutralize the virus, giving the immune system the ability to capture and produce its own antibodies to fight the pathogen.