So, based on this scenario, Caplan has theorized that as the universe continues to expand, at some point, it will run out of power. The gas in the universe, which is one of the main factors in the formation of new stars, will also be depleted. During this period (called the Great Frost or heat death), the remaining stars will begin to die out and only the remnants of dead stars like black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs will remain in the universe.
Since white dwarfs are not massive or dense enough to trigger supernova events like other stars, as we have seen, they will suffer a completely different reaction. According to Caplan, as white dwarfs become dimmer and cooler, they will eventually turn into “black dwarf” stars.
“Stars less than 10 times the mass of the Sun do not have the gravity or density to produce iron in their cores as massive stars do., so they can’t explode into a supernova right now, “Caplan explained.” As white dwarfs cool over the next trillions of years, they will become dimmer, eventually freeze, and become ‘black dwarf stars. ‘that will no longer shine. “
If Caplan’s scenario is true, these black dwarfs could become supernovae, and it will be the last explosion in the universe before it all ends.
Yes. Converting a white dwarf to a black dwarf takes a long time, so if protons disintegrate, it is unlikely that black dwarfs would form as white dwarfs would simply break apart on a shorter time scale. So, assuming that the protons disintegrate /, the white dwarfs will become black dwarfs, and these will eventually become iron black dwarfs thanks to quantum phenomena that can create heavier atoms within the white dwarf.. And this is where the real cosmic show begins. The collapse in a big bang. Imagine a billion trillion stars exploding in supernovae. By Caplan’s calculations, these cosmic fireworks will continue slowly but inexorably up to 1,032,000 years in the future.
Even if there were a time traveler who expected to witness this latest cosmic unfolding, he would be disappointed. For what reason? At the beginning of this era, the mysterious substance that acts in opposition to gravity called dark energy will have separated everything that exists in the universe so much that each individual black dwarf would be surrounded by vast darkness: supernovae would even be unobservable to each other.